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Facts on File The Thirteen Colonies All Series by Craig and Katherine Doherty PDF eBook

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Buy!Download Size: 162.94 MB

Year: 2005
Author: Craig and Katherine Doherty
Genre: Historical review
Publisher: Facts on File, Inc
Series: The Thirteen Colonies
Format: PDF
English
In the 11th century, Vikings from Scandinavia sailed to North America.They explored the Atlantic coast and set up a few small settlements. In Newfoundland and Nova Scotia, Canada, archaeologists have found traces of these settlements. No one knows for sure why they did not establish permanent colonies. It may have been that it was too far away from their homeland. At about the same time, many Scandinavians were involved with raiding and establishing settlements along the coasts of what are now Great Britain and France.This may have offered greater rewards than traveling all the way to North America.
When the western part of the Roman Empire fell in 476, Europe lapsed into a period of almost 1,000 years of war, plague, and hardship. This period of European history is often referred to as the Dark Ages or Middle Ages. Communication between the different parts of Europe was almost nonexistent. If other Europeans knew about the Vikings’ explorations westward, they left no record of it. Between the time of Viking exploration and Christopher Columbus’s 1492 journey, Europe underwent many changes.
By the 15th century, Europe had experienced many advances. Trade within the area and with the Far East had created prosperity for the governments and many wealthy people. The Catholic Church had become a rich and powerful institution. Although wars would be fought and governments would come and go, the countries of Western Europe had become fairly strong. During this time, Europe rediscovered many of the arts and sciences that had existed before the fall of Rome.They also learned much from their trade with the Near and Far East. Historians refer to this time as the Renaissance, which means “rebirth.”
At this time, some members of the Catholic Church did not like the direction the church was going. People such as Martin Luther and John Calvin spoke out against the church. They soon gained a number of followers who decided that they would protest and form their own churches.The members of these new churches were called Protestants. The movement to establish these new churches is called the Protestant Reformation. It would have a big impact on America as many Protestant groups would leave Europe so they could worship the way they wanted to.
In addition to religious dissent, problems arose with the overland trade routes to the Far East. The Ottoman Turks took control of the lands in the Middle East and disrupted trade. It was at this time that European explorers began trying to find a water route to the Far East. The explorers first sailed around Africa. Then an Italian named Christopher Columbus convinced the king and queen of Spain that it would be shorter to sail west to Asia rather than go around Africa. Most sailors and educated people at the time knew the world was round. However, Columbus made two errors in his calculations. First, he did not realize just how big the Earth is, and second, he did not know that the continents of North and South America blocked a westward route to Asia.
When Columbus made landfall in 1492, he believed that he was in the Indies, as the Far East was called at the time. For a period of time after Columbus, the Spanish controlled the seas and the exploration of what was called the New World. England tried to compete with the Spanish on the high seas, but their ships were no match for the floating fortresses of the Spanish Armada. These heavy ships, known as galleons, ruled the Atlantic.
In 1588, that all changed. A fleet of English ships fought a series of battles in which their smaller but faster and more maneuverable ships finally defeated the Spanish Armada. This opened up the New World to anyone willing to cross the ocean.
Portugal, Holland, France, and England all funded voyages of exploration to the New World. In North America, the French explored the far north. The Spanish had already established colonies in what are now Florida, most of the Caribbean, and much of Central and South America. The Dutch bought Manhattan and would establish what would become New York, as well as various islands in the Caribbean and lands in South America.The English claimed most of the east coast of North America and set about creating colonies in a variety of ways. Companies were formed in England and given royal charters to set up colonies. Some of the companies sent out military and trade expeditions to find gold and other riches. They employed men such as John Smith, Bartholomew Gosnold, and others to explore the lands they had been granted. Other companies found groups of Protestants who wanted to leave England and worked out deals that let them establish colonies. No matter what circumstances a colony was established under, the first settlers suffered hardships as they tried to build communities in what to them was a wilderness.
They also had to deal with the people who were already there. Native Americans lived in every corner of the Americas. There were vast and complex civilizations in Central and South America. The city that is now known as Cahokia was located along the Mississippi River in what is today Illinois and may have had as many as 50,000 residents. The people of Cahokia built huge earthen mounds that can still be seen today. There has been a lot of speculation as to the total population of Native Americans in 1492. Some have put the number as high as 40 million people. Most of the early explorers encountered Native Americans.
They often wrote descriptions of them for the people of Europe. They also kidnapped a few of these people, took them back to Europe, and put them on display. Despite the number of Native Americans, the Europeans still claimed the land as their own. The rulers of Europe and the Catholic Church at the time felt they had a right to take any lands they wanted from people who did not share their level of technology and who were not Christians.

Connecticut
ISBN: 0-8160-5417-7
Pages 145
Delaware
ISBN:0-8160-5414-2
Pages 145
Georgia
ISBN:0-8160-5419-3
Pages 145
Maryland
ISBN:0-8160-5418-5
Pages 129
Massachusetts
ISBN:0-8160-5407-X
Pages 161
New Hampshire
ISBN:0-8160-5411-8
Pages 145
New Jersey
ISBN:0-8160-5408-8
Pages 129
New York
ISBN:0-8160-5410-X
Pages 161
North Carolina
ISBN:0-8160-5412-6
Pages 129
Pennsylvania
ISBN:0-8160-5413-4
Pages 161
Rhode Island
ISBN:0-8160-5415-0
Pages 145
South Carolina
ISBN:0-8160-5409-6
Pages 147
Virginia
ISBN:0-8160-5416-9
Pages 145


Facts on File The Thirteen Colonies All Series by Craig and Katherine Doherty PDF eBook

10$
Buy!Download Size: 162.94 MB


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